Anathem by Neal Stephenson (Morrow; Atlantic UK)
The Graveyard Book by Neil Gaiman (HarperCollins; Bloomsbury UK)
Little Brother by Cory Doctorow (Tor Teen; HarperVoyager UK)
Saturn's Children by Charles Stross (Ace; Orbit UK)
Zoe's Tale by John Scalzi (Tor)
Wow! Three directly marketed as YA, one (Anathem) that features teenagers, one (Graveyard Book) that's for middle-grade readers on up, and, um, then there's Saturn's Children, about which Publisher's Weekly said "Sex oozes from every page of this erotic futuristic thriller..."
I also find it interesting that something that is as utterly un-sciency as The Graveyard Book made it onto the list for the most prestigious science fiction award.
Here's the rest of the ballot.